Falco biarmicus tanypterus (Schlegel 1844) Lanner Falcon
Hebrew name: בז צוקים, baz tzukim
Global Threat: NE – Not Evaluated
Regional Threat: VU (B1+2abc) – Vulnerable
Distribution area: Rare resident in the Israeli desert region, particularly the Judean Desert, the Negev Highlands and the eastern Negev.
Historic distribution: Once nested in most of the steep wadis throughout Israel, both in the desert and on Mt. Carmel and the Galilee.
Typical Habitat: Various mountains and steep gorges.
Threat and Disturbance Factors:
1. Poisoning – the major threat; it led to the disappearance of the Mediterranean population.
2. Habitat modification – mainly resulting from the expansion of human settlement, cultivated and forested areas.
3. Hunting and collection for falconry in neighboring countries.
Population Size: Ca. 25 pairs.
Fluctuations in Population Size: There has been a decrease of at least 50% in the lanner falcon population compared to its population in the 1950s. During the last decade a number of pairs that nested in the Judean Desert since the 1980s have disappeared.
Isolation Between Subpopulations: Non-existent.
Necessary Steps for Species Preservation:
1. Regulation of pesticide use, particularly in the Negev Highlands and the Arava.
2. Preventing disturbance by aircraft and hikers at nesting sites.
3. Continued reintroduction to the Carmel and Galilee.